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Are Carrots Really That Good For Your Eyes?

Getty Images
Getty Images

When I was a kid, my parents often tried to sell me on the idea that carrots were good for my eyes—and if I wanted to avoid vision correction in the future, I would eat them now. But after I was fitted for my first pair of glasses in fourth grade, they dropped that line and served carrots with a side of ranch dressing and buffalo wings. As I’ve mentioned before, my mom was not exactly scientifically rigorous in her parenting, so I can’t help but wonder if there’s any truth to what she was telling me about carrots and vision.

It seems that Mom was just parroting a commonly held belief that got its start as a bit of wartime propaganda.

During World War II, German planes frequently made bombing runs over Great Britain. In the early 1940s, the British set up a chain of radar stations along the southern coast of England so German bombers could be detected and shot down before they reached land. Not wanting the Germans to know that they had this technology, the British intelligence service began a propaganda campaign focused on the incredible eyesight of the soldiers manning the defenses—including Flight Lieutenant John Cunningham, an RAF fighter pilot dubbed "Cat's Eyes" for his ability to spot bombers in the dead of night.

Cat's Eyes' amazing vision was chalked up to his carrot-heavy diet. The campaign spilled over to the Ministry of Food, which produced informative cooking pamphlets on carrots and other root vegetables, often featuring a character called Dr. Carrot and the slogan “Carrots keep you healthy and help you see in the blackout.” The Germans, British civilians, and parents all over the world bought the story and repeated it endlessly for decades to come, which helped conceal the real reason behind the RAF’s success—and got kids to eat their veggies.

The British propaganda lent carrots a little more credit than they deserve. They won’t turn you into the second coming of Cat's Eyes, but carrots are good for overall eye health because they're rich in beta-carotene, a carotenoid pigment that’s an important precursor for vitamin A. Extreme vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and other eye problems—a big issue in the developing world. For most people in developed countries, though, vitamin A intake is sufficient with a well-rounded diet. For people with no vitamin A-related problems, binging on carrots won’t really improve your vision, though I think my mom will probably gloss over this fact when trying to feed my nephew.

Big Questions
Why Is Holly a Symbol of Christmas?

Santa Claus. A big ol’ red-and-white stocking hung by the fire. Nativity scenes. Most classic Christmas imagery is pretty self-explanatory. Then there’s the holly, genus Ilex, which found its way onto holiday cards through a more circuitous route. 

Christmas is kind of the new kid on the block as far as holly symbolism is concerned. The hardy plant’s ability to stay vibrant through the winter made it a natural choice for pre-Christian winter festivals. The Roman feast of Saturnalia, celebrated at the darkest time of the year, celebrated the god of agriculture, creation, and time, and the transition into sunshine and spring. Roman citizens festooned their houses with garlands of evergreens and tied cheery holly clippings to the gifts they exchanged.

The Celtic peoples of ancient Gaul saw great magic in the holly’s bright "berries" (technically drupes) and shiny leaves. They wore holly wreaths and sprigs to many sacred rites and festivals and viewed it as a form of protection from evil spirits. 

Christianity’s spread through what is now Europe was slow and complicated. It was hardly a one-shot, all-or-nothing takeover; few people are eager to give up their way of life. Instead, missionaries in many areas had more luck blending their messages with existing local traditions and beliefs. Holly and decorated trees were used symbolically by new Christians, just as they’d been used in their pagan days.

Today, some people associate the holly bush not with the story of Jesus’s birth but with his death, comparing the plant’s prickly leaves to a crown of thorns and the berries to drops of blood. 

But most people just enjoy it because it’s cheerful, picturesque, and riotously alive at a time when the rest of the world seems to be still and asleep.

NOTE: Holly is as poisonous as it is pretty. Please keep it away from your kids and pets.

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What Are the 12 Days of Christmas?

Everyone knows to expect a partridge in a pear tree from your true love on the first day of Christmas ... But when is the first day of Christmas?

You'd think that the 12 days of Christmas would lead up to the big day—that's how countdowns work, as any year-end list would illustrate—but in Western Christianity, "Christmas" actually begins on December 25th and ends on January 5th. According to liturgy, the 12 days signify the time in between the birth of Christ and the night before Epiphany, which is the day the Magi visited bearing gifts. This is also called "Twelfth Night." (Epiphany is marked in most Western Christian traditions as happening on January 6th, and in some countries, the 12 days begin on December 26th.)

As for the ubiquitous song, it is said to be French in origin and was first printed in England in 1780. Rumors spread that it was a coded guide for Catholics who had to study their faith in secret in 16th-century England when Catholicism was against the law. According to the Christian Resource Institute, the legend is that "The 'true love' mentioned in the song is not an earthly suitor, but refers to God Himself. The 'me' who receives the presents refers to every baptized person who is part of the Christian Faith. Each of the 'days' represents some aspect of the Christian Faith that was important for children to learn."

In debunking that story, Snopes excerpted a 1998 email that lists what each object in the song supposedly symbolizes:

2 Turtle Doves = the Old and New Testaments
3 French Hens = Faith, Hope and Charity, the Theological Virtues
4 Calling Birds = the Four Gospels and/or the Four Evangelists
5 Golden Rings = the first Five Books of the Old Testament, the "Pentateuch", which gives the history of man's fall from grace.
6 Geese A-laying = the six days of creation
7 Swans A-swimming = the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, the seven sacraments
8 Maids A-milking = the eight beatitudes
9 Ladies Dancing = the nine Fruits of the Holy Spirit
10 Lords A-leaping = the ten commandments
11 Pipers Piping = the eleven faithful apostles
12 Drummers Drumming = the twelve points of doctrine in the Apostle's Creed

There is pretty much no historical evidence pointing to the song's secret history, although the arguments for the legend are compelling. In all likelihood, the song's "code" was invented retroactively.

Hidden meaning or not, one thing is definitely certain: You have "The Twelve Days of Christmas" stuck in your head right now.


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