2,053 Nuclear Explosions in One Video

Artist Isao Hashimoto created an animation showing every nuclear test between 1945 (the first Manhattan Project test, called Trinity) and 1998 (a test in Pakistan). The total number? 2,053, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Note that this number doesn't include the rumored North Korean tests in 2006 and 2009. While the video starts slowly, by the late 1950s things are getting intense. Testing peaks in 1962, when over a hundred blasts are shown. You can follow the running tally at the top of the screen to see who's testing, when, and where. After twelve minutes, the video goes silent and runs through the tests by country of origin, so you can see who's blowing up what, where.

Hashimoto said (emphasis added): "This piece of work is a bird's eye view of the history by scaling down a month length of time into one second. No letter is used for equal messaging to all viewers without language barrier. The blinking light, sound and the numbers on the world map show when, where and how many experiments each country have conducted. I created this work for the means of an interface to the people who are yet to know of the extremely grave, but present problem of the world."

And here's video of Trinity, the test on July 16, 1945 which prompted Robert Oppenheimer to quote the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

And here's a photo of Trinity. According to Wikipedia:

The Trinity explosion, 16 milliseconds after detonation. The fireball is about 600 feet (200 m) wide. The black specks silhouetted along the horizon are trees.

The Queen of Code: Remembering Grace Hopper
By Lynn Gilbert, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

Grace Hopper was a computing pioneer. She coined the term "computer bug" after finding a moth stuck inside Harvard's Mark II computer in 1947 (which in turn led to the term "debug," meaning solving problems in computer code). She did the foundational work that led to the COBOL programming language, used in mission-critical computing systems for decades (including today). She worked in World War II using very early computers to help end the war. When she retired from the U.S. Navy at age 79, she was the oldest active-duty commissioned officer in the service. Hopper, who was born on this day in 1906, is a hero of computing and a brilliant role model, but not many people know her story.

In this short documentary from FiveThirtyEight, directed by Gillian Jacobs, we learned about Grace Hopper from several biographers, archival photographs, and footage of her speaking in her later years. If you've never heard of Grace Hopper, or you're even vaguely interested in the history of computing or women in computing, this is a must-watch:

Why Are Glaciers Blue?

The bright azure blue sported by many glaciers is one of nature's most stunning hues. But how does it happen, when the snow we see is usually white? As Joe Hanson of It's Okay to Be Smart explains in the video below, the snow and ice we see mostly looks white, cloudy, or clear because all of the visible light striking its surface is reflected back to us. But glaciers have a totally different structure—their many layers of tightly compressed snow means light has to travel much further, and is scattered many times throughout the depths. As the light bounces around, the light at the red and yellow end of the spectrum gets absorbed thanks to the vibrations of the water molecules inside the ice, leaving only blue and green light behind. For the details of exactly why that happens, check out Hanson's trip to Alaska's beautiful (and endangered) Mendenhall Glacier below.

[h/t The Kid Should See This]


More from mental floss studios