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The Late Movies: Celebrating Moldova's Independence

Today marks the 21st anniversary of Moldova's declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. What better way to celebrate independence than with pop music and rock 'n' roll? Here are 8 of Moldova's most popular musical acts.

1. O-Zone

"Dragostea Din Tei" (a.k.a. "the Numa Numa song")

"Dragostea Din Tei" is far and away O-Zone's most popular song, with the official music video from Ultra Records accruing more than 23 million YouTube views in 5 years. (You may know the song better from the "Numa Numa" viral video.) The group, originally a duo, formed in 1999 and hit it big with "Despre tine" in 2002. They disbanded in 2005, less than a year after "Dragostea Din Tei" made it into many countries' top 10 charts. That same year, a Japanese record company obtained Japan distribution rights for O-Zone, and the group became a Japanese sensation, with the DiscO-Zone album selling more than 1 million copies.

2. Zdob ?i Zdub (a.k.a. Zdob shi Zdub)

"So Lucky" (Performed live)

Zdob ?i Zdub, which formed in 1994, fuses traditional Romanian folk music with more modern musical genres, including punk, ska, and hip-hop. They were the first band to represent Moldova at a Eurovision contest, in 2005, placing sixth with their song "Bunika Bate Toba." They represented Moldova again at Eurovision in 2011, finishing 12th that year with "So Lucky." (The video above is a live recording used as a promotional video for Eurovision 2011, and not their actual performance from the contest.) They have released 10 albums, toured in at least 10 countries, warmed up for Rage Against the Machine, and performed at a Russian MTV-Party. There's even a YouTube video in which Zdob ?i Zdub's "DJ Vasile" is mashed-up with the Black Eyed Peas "Don't Phunk With My Heart."

3. SunStroke Project & Olia Tira

"Run Away" (Performed for Eurovision 2010)

SunStroke Project's Anton Ragoza (the violinist and composer) and Sergey Stepanov (the saxophonist) served in the Army together, during which time Sergey got the inspiration for the band's name. The group formed in 2007 and currently consists of Anton, Sergey, and Sergei Yalovitsky (vocals). They competed to represent Moldova for Eurovision 2009, but came in third in the pre-selection; they succeeded the next year, when they were chosen along with German-born, Moldova-based pop singer Olia Tira to represent Moldova. At Eurovision 2010, SunStroke Project and Olia Tira performed "Run Away," reaching 22nd place among 39 competitors. Both the band and Olia Tira are probably more well-known for their Eurovision competition than their other songs, especially after Sergey Stepanov's saxophone solo in "Run Away" became a meme known as "Epic Sax Guy." The band has capitalized on the meme, releasing an official "Epic Sax Guy" video and incorporating the phrase into their song "Superman," which they and Olia Tira used as a bid to represent Moldova for Eurovision 2012. (They weren't chosen.)

4. Pasha Parfeny

"L?utar" (Performed live)

Pasha Parfeny (also sometimes spelled Parfeni) was a member of SunStroke Project when it competed to represent Moldova at the 2009 Eurovision Song Contest; he wrote "No Crime," the song they performed for the national selection contest. In 2010, both SunStroke Project (with Olia Tira) and Parfeny were again in the running to represent Moldova for Eurovision, but that year they were competing against each other, Parfeny having entered as a solo act. Parfeny failed to earn the bid in both 2010 and 2011, but succeeded in 2012 with his song "L?utar." (The video above is the preview video for the contest, and not the performance from Eurovision.) He placed 11th in the final. Although he's been active as a singer since 2002, he has not yet released any albums (as far as we can tell).

5. Alternosfera

"Muta" (Performed live, 2011)

This alternative rock band was formed in December 1998 by two high school friends. The line-up has changed a bit over the years, with only two original members--Marcel Bostan and Marin Nicoar?--remaining; the rest of the current members are Sergiu Aladin, Eugen Berdea, and Victor "Vikosh" Co?parmac. They've released two albums--Ora?ul 511 (2005) and Visatori cu Plumb în Ochi (2007)--as well as an EP, Flori din Groapa Marianelor (2008). Ora?ul 511 was named after the garage where the band rehearsed for years.

6. Natalia Barbu

"Do That Thing"

Natalia Barbu hit it big when her single, "Îngerul meu," spent 11 weeks in the #1 slot on the Romanian Top 100 chart and received frequent play on MTV Romania. In 2007, she was selected to represent Moldova at the Eurovision Song Contest, beating out Zdob ?i Zdub. She finished 10th out of 24 finalists. She has released three albums: Între ieri ?i azi (2001), Zbor De Dor (2003), Sunt fata de maritat (2009), and Fight (2009).

7. Familia Stratan

"Numar Pan La Unu" by Cleopatra Stratan

Familia Stratan patriarch Pavel graduated from the Academy of Music, Theatre and Plastic Arts in Moldova. He released his first album, Amintiri din copil?rie (Memories of Childhood), in 2002, followed by volumes 2, 3, and 4 in 2004, 2008, and 2011, respectively. Cleopatra Stratan, Pavel's daughter with his wife, engineer Rodica, released her own album in 2006, at the tender age of 3. With La vârsta de trei ani, Cleopatra reportedly became the youngest artist to achieve commercial success; she also was the youngest artist to perform live for two hours in front of a large audience, the highest paid young artist, the youngest artist to receive an MTV award, and the youngest artist to score a #1 hit (which she did in Romania with "Ghi??"). La vârsta de trei ani went double platinum in 2006 in Romania, where the family now lives. Cleopatra has released three more albums: La vârsta de 5 ani (2008), Cr?ciun Magic (2009), and Melodii Pentru Copii (2012). The youngest Stratan, Cezar, was born in 2008; he now joins Pavel and Cleopatra in many of their YouTube videos.

8. Nelly Ciobanu

"Hora Din Moldova" (Dance of Moldova)

Nelly Ciobanu has been performing since age 19 (in 1993), when she won first prize at the "Morning Star" competition. She has continued to do well in competitions throughout the Eurasian region; the fact that she sings in 11 languages, including Romanian, Russian, and English, surely doesn't hurt. In 2009, she represented Moldova at Eurovision, where she came in 14th with "Hora Din Moldova." (The video above is the promotional video, not her Eurovision performance.) For the last five years, she has been hosting a music TV program called "Vedete la bis," or Stars Encore, in Moldova.

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
A Chinese Museum Is Offering Cash to Whoever Can Decipher These 3000-Year-Old Inscriptions

During the 19th century, farmers in China’s Henan Province began discovering oracle bones—engraved ox scapulae and tortoise shells used by Shang Dynasty leaders for record-keeping and divination purposes—while plowing their fields. More bones were excavated in subsequent years, and their inscriptions were revealed to be the earliest known form of systematic writing in East Asia. But over the decades, scholars still haven’t come close to cracking half of the mysterious script’s roughly 5000 characters—which is why one Chinese museum is asking member of the public for help, in exchange for a generous cash reward.

As Atlas Obscura reports, the National Museum of Chinese Writing in Anyang, Henan Province has offered to pay citizen researchers about $15,000 for each unknown character translated, and $7500 if they provide a disputed character’s definitive meaning. Submissions must be supported with evidence, and reviewed by at least two language specialists.

The museum began farming out their oracle bone translation efforts in Fall 2016. The costly ongoing project has hit a stalemate, and scholars hope that the public’s collective smarts—combined with new advances in technology, including cloud computing and big data—will yield new information and save them research money.

As of today, more than 200,000 oracle bones have been discovered—around 50,000 of which bear text—so scholars still have a lot to learn about the Shang Dynasty. Many of the ancient script's characters are difficult to verify, as they represent places and people from long ago. However, decoding even just one character could lead to a substantial breakthrough, experts say: "If we interpret a noun or a verb, it can bring many scripts on oracle bones to life, and we can understand ancient history better,” Chinese history professor Zhu Yanmin told the South China Morning Post.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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6 Eponyms Named After the Wrong Person
Original image
Salmonella species growing on agar.

Having something named after you is the ultimate accomplishment for any inventor, mathematician, scientist, or researcher. Unfortunately, the credit for an invention or discovery does not always go to the correct person—senior colleagues sometimes snatch the glory, fakers pull the wool over people's eyes, or the fickle general public just latches onto the wrong name.

1. SALMONELLA (OR SMITHELLA?)

In 1885, while investigating common livestock diseases at the Bureau of Animal Industry in Washington, D.C., pathologist Theobald Smith first isolated the salmonella bacteria in pigs suffering from hog cholera. Smith’s research finally identified the bacteria responsible for one of the most common causes of food poisoning in humans. Unfortunately, Smith’s limelight-grabbing supervisor, Daniel E. Salmon, insisted on taking sole credit for the discovery. As a result, the bacteria was named after him. Don’t feel too sorry for Theobald Smith, though: He soon emerged from Salmon’s shadow, going on to make the important discovery that ticks could be a vector in the spread of disease, among other achievements.

2. AMERICA (OR COLUMBIANA?)

An etching of Amerigo Vespucci
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) claimed to have made numerous voyages to the New World, the first in 1497, before Columbus. Textual evidence suggests Vespucci did take part in a number of expeditions across the Atlantic, but generally does not support the idea that he set eyes on the New World before Columbus. Nevertheless, Vespucci’s accounts of his voyages—which today read as far-fetched—were hugely popular and translated into many languages. As a result, when German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was drawing his map of the Novus Mundi (or New World) in 1507 he marked it with the name "America" in Vespucci’s honor. He later regretted the choice, omitting the name from future maps, but it was too late, and the name stuck.

3. BLOOMERS (OR MILLERS?)

A black and white image of young women wearing bloomers
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Dress reform became a big issue in mid-19th century America, when women were restricted by long, heavy skirts that dragged in the mud and made any sort of physical activity difficult. Women’s rights activist Elizabeth Smith Miller was inspired by traditional Turkish dress to begin wearing loose trousers gathered at the ankle underneath a shorter skirt. Miller’s new outfit immediately caused a splash, with some decrying it as scandalous and others inspired to adopt the garb.

Amelia Jenks Bloomer was editor of the women’s temperance journal The Lily, and she took to copying Miller’s style of dress. She was so impressed with the new freedom it gave her that she began promoting the “reform dress” in her magazine, printing patterns so others might make their own. Bloomer sported the dress when she spoke at events and soon the press began to associate the outfit with her, dubbing it “Bloomer’s costume.” The name stuck.

4. GUILLOTINE (OR LOUISETTE?)

Execution machines had been known prior to the French Revolution, but they were refined after Paris physician and politician Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin suggested they might be a more humane form of execution than the usual methods (hanging, burning alive, etc.). The first guillotine was actually designed by Dr. Antoine Louis, Secretary of the Academy of Surgery, and was known as a louisette. The quick and efficient machine was quickly adopted as the main method of execution in revolutionary France, and as the bodies piled up the public began to refer to it as la guillotine, for the man who first suggested its use. Guillotin was very distressed at the association, and when he died in 1814 his family asked the French government to change the name of the hated machine. The government refused and so the family changed their name instead to escape the dreadful association.

5. BECHDEL TEST (OR WALLACE TEST?)

Alison Bechdel
Alison Bechdel
Steve Jennings/Getty Images

The Bechdel Test is a tool to highlight gender inequality in film, television, and fiction. The idea is that in order to pass the test, the movie, show, or book in question must include at least one scene in which two women have a conversation that isn’t about a man. The test was popularized by the cartoonist Alison Bechdel in 1985 in her comic strip “Dykes to Watch Out For,” and has since become known by her name. However, Bechdel asserts that the idea originated with her friend Lisa Wallace (and was also inspired by the writer Virginia Woolf), and she would prefer for it to be known as the Bechdel-Wallace test.

6. STIGLER’S LAW OF EPONYMY (OR MERTON’S LAW?)

Influential sociologist Robert K. Merton suggested the idea of the “Matthew Effect” in a 1968 paper noting that senior colleagues who are already famous tend to get the credit for their junior colleagues’ discoveries. (Merton named his phenomenon [PDF] after the parable of talents in the Gospel of Matthew, in which wise servants invest money their master has given them.)

Merton was a well-respected academic, and when he was due to retire in 1979, a book of essays celebrating his work was proposed. One person who contributed an essay was University of Chicago professor of statistics Stephen Stigler, who had corresponded with Merton about his ideas. Stigler decided to pen an essay that celebrated and proved Merton’s theory. As a result, he took Merton’s idea and created Stigler’s Law of Eponymy, which states that “No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer”—the joke being that Stigler himself was taking Merton’s own theory and naming it after himself. To further prove the rule, the “new” law has been adopted by the academic community, and a number of papers and articles have since been written on "Stigler’s Law."

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