CLOSE

Neil Armstrong's Giant Leap

Neil Armstrong -- astronaut, engineer, professor, Navy pilot, and first man on the moon -- has died at the age of 82. He is best known for the words he spoke just after he set foot on the moon. Contrary to popular belief, Armstrong said (emphasis added): "That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." That word "a" was garbled in the satellite feed heard by the world. Regardless of our ability to hear him, Armstrong was a man of powerful words. Here are a few more to remember him by.

The Moon Plaque

Apollo 11 plaque

Armstrong and fellow astronaut Buzz Aldrin left a plaque on the ladder of their moon lander, Eagle. The plaque read: "Here men from the planet Earth / First set foot upon the Moon / July 1969 A.D. / We came in peace for all mankind." It bore the signatures of the Apollo 11 crew members and President Nixon. He also left a small silicon disc bearing tiny messages of goodwill from various world leaders, as well as the names of various American dignitaries. You may enjoy this video of Armstrong placing the plaque and then reading its text to the world (his reading starts around 1:30):

In addition to that plaque, the messages of goodwill on the disc were mixed. Most were fairly bland messages of congratulations. But the message from Poland made it clear that the Cold War was in full swing:

"Although we are not suggesting any message from the Polish Head of State, please be assured that the achievements of the U.S. astronauts are followed by us with great interest, appreciation and best wishes for the success in their endeavor."

Sincerely,
Jorzy Michalowski
Ambassador, Poland

And in this short clip at the Apollo 11 40th anniversary celebration in 2009, Armstrong discusses how the space race functioned politically. "I'll not assert that it was a diversion which prevented a war, but nevertheless, it was a diversion."

The Congressional Gold Medal

Armstrong was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal on July 21, 2009. In this video, he shares some memories of the journey. He starts the speech: "Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am in the position of a pilot without his checklist, so I'll have to wing it. ... [Prior to the Apollo missions,] no one knew what kind of person could be persuaded to take the trip. Prisoners were suggested. Soldiers could be ordered. Photographers could take pictures -- and they're expendable. Doctors understood the limits of human physiology. Finally, both sides picked pilots." Watch the rest for an explanation of how the Apollo missions worked.

Tranquility Base & "About to Turn Blue"

Armstrong suits up for the Apollo 11 launch on July 16, 1969Eagle's touchdown was tricky. The autopilot was sending the lander into a crater that Armstrong didn't like the looks of, so he took manual control and steered the vehicle to a new location, which he dubbed Tranquility Base -- apparently the first time Mission Control had heard the name. With seconds of fuel remaining (and people around the world holding their breath), Armstrong landed and announced the name of the first place where humans set foot on the Moon. Capcom Charlie Duke was audibly relieved, and just a bit flustered. The exchange:

Armstrong: "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed."

Duke: (Momentarily tongue-tied) "Roger, Twan...(correcting himself) Tranquility. We copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot."

You can read the full lunar landing transcript from NASA, including several audio clips in MP3 format.

The BBC Interview

In 1970, Armstrong was interviewed by the BBC about what it was like to be on the Moon. "I'm quite certain that we'll have such [lunar] bases in our lifetime, somewhat like the Antarctic stations and similar scientific outposts, continually manned."

The 60 Minutes Interview

Armstrong was a very private man. Here's a rare profile at age 75 on 60 Minutes. Highlights: he got his pilot's license at 15 -- before his driver's license; video showing his last-minute ejection from a near-fatal test flight (after which he walked back to his office and finished some paperwork); the dicey last-second landing of Eagle (and laughing with Walter Cronkite remembering that landing).

The biography mentioned in the video above is First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong.

NASA's Remembrance

NASA has posted an obituary, including this quote from Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins (the man who did not get to walk on the Moon during that mission):

"He was the best, and I will miss him terribly." -- Michael Collins, Apollo 11 command module pilot.

NASA also posted this image showing Armstrong on the Moon. Most of the iconic astronaut-on-the-Moon photos are actually of Buzz Aldrin, taken by Armstrong. But this is the man himself:

Neil Armstrong on the Moon

A Glamour Shot

Here's Neil Armstrong in a Gemini G-2C training suit. Photo courtesy of NASA, via Wikipedia.

Neil Armstrong in a Gemini G-2C training suit

New York Times Archival Coverage

The New York Times has posted archival images and text from their coverage of the first moonwalk, with its famous, gigantic "MEN WALK ON MOON" headline. You may recall The Onion's profane-but-true spoof (warning: curse words, lots of 'em!) of that page. Here's a nice bit from the real NYT coverage:

Tentative Steps Test Soil

Mr. Armstrong's initial steps were tentative tests of the lunar soil's firmness and of his ability to move about easily in his bulky white spacesuit and backpacks and under the influence of lunar gravity, which is one-sixth that of the earth.

"The surface is fine and powdery," the astronaut reported. "I can pick it up loosely with my toe. It does adhere in fine layers like powdered charcoal to the sole and sides of my boots. I only go in a small fraction of an inch, maybe an eighth of an inch. But I can see the footprints of my boots in the treads in the fine sandy particles.

After 19 minutes of Mr. Armstrong's testing, Colonel Aldrin joined him outside the craft.

The two men got busy setting up another television camera out from the lunar module, planting an American flag into the ground, scooping up soil and rock samples, deploying scientific experiments and hopping and loping about in a demonstration of their lunar agility.

They found walking and working on the moon less taxing than had been forecast. Mr. Armstrong once reported he was "very comfortable."

And people back on earth found the black-and-white television pictures of the bug-shaped lunar module and the men tramping about it so sharp and clear as to seem unreal, more like a toy and toy-like figures than human beings on the most daring and far-reaching expedition thus far undertaken.

Armstrong Smiles After a Walk on the Moon

Finally, here's a photograph taken by Aldrin of Armstrong, after they returned from their walk on the Moon. That grin is infectious -- you can see the exuberant sense that "we did it" is on his face, along with the weariness of how hard it was. But we went to the Moon not because it was easy, but because it was hard. Rest in tranquility, Neil Armstrong.

Armstrong after Lunar EVA

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
arrow
Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
New Program Trains Dogs to Sniff Out Art Smugglers
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

Soon, the dogs you see sniffing out contraband at airports may not be searching for drugs or smuggled Spanish ham. They might be looking for stolen treasures.

K-9 Artifact Finders, a new collaboration between New Hampshire-based cultural heritage law firm Red Arch and the University of Pennsylvania, is training dogs to root out stolen antiquities looted from archaeological sites and museums. The dogs would be stopping them at borders before the items can be sold elsewhere on the black market.

The illegal antiquities trade nets more than $3 billion per year around the world, and trafficking hits countries dealing with ongoing conflict, like Syria and Iraq today, particularly hard. By one estimate, around half a million artifacts were stolen from museums and archaeological sites throughout Iraq between 2003 and 2005 alone. (Famously, the craft-supply chain Hobby Lobby was fined $3 million in 2017 for buying thousands of ancient artifacts looted from Iraq.) In Syria, the Islamic State has been known to loot and sell ancient artifacts including statues, jewelry, and art to fund its operations.

But the problem spans across the world. Between 2007 and 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Control discovered more than 7800 cultural artifacts in the U.S. looted from 30 different countries.

A yellow Lab sniffs a metal cage designed to train dogs on scent detection.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

K-9 Artifact Finders is the brainchild of Rick St. Hilaire, the executive director of Red Arch. His non-profit firm researches cultural heritage property law and preservation policy, including studying archaeological site looting and antiquities trafficking. Back in 2015, St. Hilaire was reading an article about a working dog trained to sniff out electronics that was able to find USB drives, SD cards, and other data storage devices. He wondered, if dogs could be trained to identify the scents of inorganic materials that make up electronics, could they be trained to sniff out ancient pottery?

To find out, St. Hilaire tells Mental Floss, he contacted the Penn Vet Working Dog Center, a research and training center for detection dogs. In December 2017, Red Arch, the Working Dog Center, and the Penn Museum (which is providing the artifacts to train the dogs) launched K-9 Artifact Finders, and in late January 2018, the five dogs selected for the project began their training, starting with learning the distinct smell of ancient pottery.

“Our theory is, it is a porous material that’s going to have a lot more odor than, say, a metal,” says Cindy Otto, the executive director of the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the project’s principal investigator.

As you might imagine, museum curators may not be keen on exposing fragile ancient materials to four Labrador retrievers and a German shepherd, and the Working Dog Center didn’t want to take any risks with the Penn Museum’s priceless artifacts. So instead of letting the dogs have free rein to sniff the materials themselves, the project is using cotton balls. The researchers seal the artifacts (broken shards of Syrian pottery) in airtight bags with a cotton ball for 72 hours, then ask the dogs to find the cotton balls in the lab. They’re being trained to disregard the smell of the cotton ball itself, the smell of the bag it was stored in, and ideally, the smell of modern-day pottery, eventually being able to zero in on the smell that distinguishes ancient pottery specifically.

A dog looks out over the metal "pinhweel" training mechanism.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

“The dogs are responding well,” Otto tells Mental Floss, explaining that the training program is at the stage of "exposing them to the odor and having them recognize it.”

The dogs involved in the project were chosen for their calm-but-curious demeanors and sensitive noses (one also works as a drug-detection dog when she’s not training on pottery). They had to be motivated enough to want to hunt down the cotton balls, but not aggressive or easily distracted.

Right now, the dogs train three days a week, and will continue to work on their pottery-detection skills for the first stage of the project, which the researchers expect will last for the next nine months. Depending on how the first phase of the training goes, the researchers hope to be able to then take the dogs out into the field to see if they can find the odor of ancient pottery in real-life situations, like in suitcases, rather than in a laboratory setting. Eventually, they also hope to train the dogs on other types of objects, and perhaps even pinpoint the chemical signatures that make artifacts smell distinct.

Pottery-sniffing dogs won’t be showing up at airport customs or on shipping docks soon, but one day, they could be as common as drug-sniffing canines. If dogs can detect low blood sugar or find a tiny USB drive hidden in a house, surely they can figure out if you’re smuggling a sculpture made thousands of years ago in your suitcase.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
Medicine
New Cancer-Fighting Nanobots Can Track Down Tumors and Cut Off Their Blood Supply
iStock
iStock

Scientists have developed a new way to cut off the blood flow to cancerous tumors, causing them to eventually shrivel up and die. As Business Insider reports, the new treatment uses a design inspired by origami to infiltrate crucial blood vessels while leaving the rest of the body unharmed.

A team of molecular chemists from Arizona State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences describe their method in the journal Nature Biotechnology. First, they constructed robots that are 1000 times smaller than a human hair from strands of DNA. These tiny devices contain enzymes called thrombin that encourage blood clotting, and they're rolled up tightly enough to keep the substance contained.

Next, researchers injected the robots into the bloodstreams of mice and small pigs sick with different types of cancer. The DNA sought the tumor in the body while leaving healthy cells alone. The robot knew when it reached the tumor and responded by unfurling and releasing the thrombin into the blood vessel that fed it. A clot started to form, eventually blocking off the tumor's blood supply and causing the cancerous tissues to die.

The treatment has been tested on dozen of animals with breast, lung, skin, and ovarian cancers. In mice, the average life expectancy doubled, and in three of the skin cancer cases tumors regressed completely.

Researchers are optimistic about the therapy's effectiveness on cancers throughout the body. There's not much variation between the blood vessels that supply tumors, whether they're in an ovary in or a prostate. So if triggering a blood clot causes one type of tumor to waste away, the same method holds promise for other cancers.

But before the scientists think too far ahead, they'll need to test the treatments on human patients. Nanobots have been an appealing cancer-fighting option to researchers for years. If effective, the machines can target cancer at the microscopic level without causing harm to healthy cells. But if something goes wrong, the bots could end up attacking the wrong tissue and leave the patient worse off. Study co-author Hao Yan believes this latest method may be the one that gets it right. He said in a statement, "I think we are much closer to real, practical medical applications of the technology."

[h/t Business Insider]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios