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Will the Real "Super Mario Bros. 2" Please Stand Up?

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This week, Nintendo released "New" Super Mario Bros. 2. But "Old" Super Mario Bros. 2 isn't what you think it is. Here's the odd story of how Nintendo crammed Mario into places he was never meant to be.

Super Mario Bros. 1 (1985)

To start this saga, we have to go all the way back to the original Super Mario Bros. (or SMB for short). SMB on the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) defined a generation of side-scrolling arcade games -- its fluid graphics, fun soundtrack, and extensive gameplay gave NES fans a benchmark against which to measure all future games. And because it was bundled with the NES console in the US, tons of people owned copies and played them. (The "B side" of that bundle cartridge, Duck Hunt, didn't get nearly as much play.)


SMB's gameplay was not heavily plot-driven. While there was a general sense that Mario and his brother Luigi had to save Princess Toadstool from the evil dragon/turtle Bowser, it wasn't really explained why Bowser had kidnapped her in the first place, nor what he planned to gain from the crime. Regardless, gameplay was fun, and simple game mechanics (jumping and running) combined with clever level design made the game challenging. After playing a few rounds, I don't think I ever asked myself why I was fighting flying turtles, gobbling mushrooms to grow up, or eating flowers in order to throw fireballs -- the whole situation was sufficiently trippy that a sensible plot wasn't necessary.

Super Mario Bros. 2 (in Japan, 1986)

In Japan, Nintendo released a version of "Super Mario Bros. 2" that was a very clear sequel -- it looked very similar, using the same game engine and the same characters, along with exactly the same plot. This game is now known to US players as "SMB2j," and a version of it was eventually released in the US as "Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels." But as a kid with an NES in the States, I never knew about this one. Most US players have never heard of SMB2j, although we probably would have bought and played it if it had been available. So let's dig in.

SMB2j cart

In SMB2j, there is no 2-player mode. You must choose to play either Mario or Luigi from the start. The differences are subtle: Luigi can jump higher and has a little less traction on the ground. In many cases, the game mechanics are slightly different -- jumping off of bouncy objects (such as turtle shells) was tweaked, adding more lift to the jump. (Don't ask me why jumping off of a turtle should give you a boost in the first place -- just eat a mushroom and it will eventually become clear, man.) This extra turtle-lift was necessary because the level designs often used extremely long gaps, requiring a mega-jump to clear them. SMB2j is also much nastier with its Piranha Plants (those flowers, sometimes spitting fireballs, that emerged from pipes) -- in SMB2j they continue rising out of the pipe even if you're standing next to it, making your game life a lot more difficult. And remember the Hammer Bros., those weird helmet-wearing turtles who throw an infinite stream of hammers at you? Well, in SMB2j they advance towards you, making it harder to sidestep them. In general, SMB2j is a wicked-hard version of SMB, with all new levels.

The other major changes are the introduction of wind on some levels (which pushes the player left or right, even while standing -- making platform jumping a huge challenge) and the introduction of poison mushrooms that looked a lot like power-up and 1-up mushrooms. Touching a poison mushroom hurts Mario or Luigi much like touching an enemy, and further reinforced what camp counselors have been telling kids for years: there are good mushrooms and bad mushrooms.

To give you an idea of what SMB2j looked like, here's a roughly nine-minute speedrun. Note how similar it is to SMB, just way, way harder:

So why didn't Nintendo release SMB2j in the US? Nintendo felt it was too difficult for the US market. Rather than alienate casual players, Nintendo delayed releasing an SMB sequel for two years as it worked on Plan B.

Super Mario Bros. 2 (in the US, 1988)

SMB2 boxThe search for a US-friendly SMB sequel made a false start: initially, Nintendo designers developed a prototype vertical-scrolling SMB-style game in which two players cooperatively jumped up a long tunnel of death, rather than the SMB style of running left-to right and avoiding chasms of doom. The prototype was canned early on, for two reasons: the NES hardware couldn't really handle simultaneous two-player mode with all that jumping, and Mario creator Shigeru Miyamoto didn't feel that the vertical-scrolling gameplay was particularly fun (especially in one-player mode, where you couldn't bounce ideas -- and bodies -- off that other player).


So Nintendo turned to Doki Doki Panic, a game that was also designed by Miyamoto and developed by the original Mario team. "Doki doki" is Japanese onomatopoeia for the sound of a heart beating, hence the common translation of the game's Japanese title "Yume K?j?: Doki Doki Panikku" as "Dream Factory: Heart-Pounding Panic." Let's just call it DDP for short.

DDP, while clearly a Miyamoto joint, was a very different game from SMB. While it was a side-scroller like SMB, it eschewed the stomping-on-enemies aspect of SMB, focusing instead on pulling vegetables out of the ground and throwing them at enemies. There was also no "fire flower" equivalent, which had been a favorite part of SMB -- the fire flower had allowed you to become Fire Mario and throw fireballs at enemies. In DDP, no fireballs were allowed -- just vegetables and the occasional fruit. There was no Bowser; instead you fought various animal bosses, ending with the evil frog king Wart, who could only be defeated by force-feeding him a large number of vegetables. The graphics and enemies were vaguely similar to those in SMB, with one extremely notable exception: instead of throwing turtle shells at enemies, in DDP you threw blackface heads and (at least in concept art) African ceremonial masks. Lots of art changes were made when DDP was adapted for the US market, but removing this racially charged sprite was a particularly good choice.

On the bright side, DDP had a fascinating new game mechanic: the ability to choose among a family of four different players, all with different abilities. You could choose to play Imajin (later Mario), a well-rounded character with no special abilities and no special weaknesses. Or you could pick Mama (later Luigi), who could jump high and hover at the top of the jump just a bit. My favorite was Lina (later Princess Toadstool), who could jump and hover for long distances -- great for zipping by a bunch of complex jumps on the ground. Finally, you could be Papa (later Toad), who was really good at throwing things. Allowing the player to choose a character changed gameplay, and meant that each level could be defeated in many different ways (as a Princess Toadstool player, my main tactic was avoidance).

DDP boxAside from the gameplay and art differences, the overall vibe of DDP was super weird -- and a lot of that carried over to SMB2. The game was envisioned as occurring in an Arabian dreamworld, where many characters are masked (DDP even included masks looking suspiciously like the members of the rock group KISS), a lot of action occurs at night, and you finish each stage by stepping into the mouth of a creepy head embedded in a wall. Of course, it can be argued that this is no weirder than the mushrooms/castles/turtles trip of the original SMB. But the overall concept was less clear, partially because of the DDP-to-SMB2 adaptation -- in the original DDP, a family was trying to rescue two children held hostage by Wart. In SMB2, Wart was more of a generic bad guy, who created masked minions using a Dream Machine and generally just messed up the world of Subcon (it's no accident that the game takes place in the Subcon(scious), and at the end -- spoiler alert -- is revealed to be Mario's dream, possibly the result of eating too many turnips just before bed).

Coincidentally, the DDP-based SMB2 came out in the US the same month as Super Mario Bros. 3 came out in Japan. US players didn't get to enjoy SMB3 until two years later, though a sneak peek appeared in the Nintendo-themed movie The Wizard.

Here's a peek at what DDP looked like before it was SMB2-ified:

You can also read up on the differences between DDP and SMB2, including screen-by-screen comparisons.

Let the Circle Be Unbroken: Super Mario USA

After the US release of SMB2 (aka Doki Doki Panic with special sauce), the game was actually released back into the Japanese market as Super Mario USA. And that's how a Japanese game that was too hard (SMB2j) begat a remade Japanese game with Americanized art (SMB2), which finally became a Japanese game again...with an all-American name (SMUSA).

Further Reading

For more on Mario, check out IGN's History of Super Mario Bros.. Also relevant are the super-extensive Wikipedia pages on SMB and SMB2.

You can also buy SMB2j on a cartridge, assuming you have an NES to play it on.

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10 Fast Facts About Pac-Man

by Ryan Lambie

When Pac-Man emerged in the early 1980s, nothing else looked or sounded quite like it. Whereas most arcade games of the era involved shooting marauding aliens, Pac-Man looked like a miniature, interactive cartoon: a comical tug-of-war between a round, yellow character with an addiction to munching tiny white dots and a quartet of roaming ghosts with big, anxious eyes.

As we now know, Pac-Man was a massive hit, and its grip on pop culture is still strong today. But Pac-Man's success was far from certain; its designer initially had no interest in games, and the public reaction to it was initially mixed. Here's a brief look at some of the fascinating facts behind Pac-Man's making, its impact, and its legacy.

1. PAC-MAN DESIGNER TORU IWATANI HAD NO TRAINING AS A DESIGNER OR PROGRAMMER.

When then 22-year-old Toru Iwatani started work at Namco in 1977, he had no particular interest in designing video games. In fact, Iwatani initially expected that he'd work on pinball machines, but instead ended up designing the Breakout-inspired paddle games Gee Bee (1978), Bomb Bee and Cutie Q (1979). Two years after Pac-Man's release in 1980, he designed Pole Position.

2. PAC-MAN WAS DESIGNED AS A RESPONSE TO SHOOTING GAMES LIKE SPACE INVADERS.

Japanese arcades of the late 1970s and early 1980s were dark, masculine places full of space shooting games inspired by the success of Space Invaders—including Namco's own enormously successful Galaxian. In response, Iwatani began thinking about a concept which ran counter to those games.

"All the computer games available at the time were of the violent type—war games and Space Invader types," Iwatani said in 1986. "There were no games that everyone could enjoy, and especially none for women. I wanted to come up with a 'comical' game women could enjoy."

Iwatani began thinking about ideas based around the word taberu, meaning "to eat." And gradually, the concept of a game called Pakku-Man (derived from paku paku, a Japanese slang word akin to chomp) began to form.

3. PAC-MAN'S PIZZA INSPIRATION IS ONLY HALF TRUE.

By Official GDC - Flickr, CC BY 2.0, Wikimedia Commons

One of the great creation legends of game design is that Iwatani, while eating a pizza, looked down at the pie with a missing slice and used the outline as inspiration for Pac-Man's distinctive shape. The story was furthered by Iwatani himself; when Pac-Man fever was at its height, he even posed with a half-eaten pizza for a publicity photograph. But in a 1986 interview, Iwatani admitted that the legend was only "half true."

"In Japanese, the character for mouth [kuchi] is a square shape," Iwatani explained. "It's not circular like the pizza, but I decided to round it out." And thus, Pac-Man was born.

4. PAC-MAN'S GAMEPLAY AND GHOSTS WERE INSPIRED BY COMIC BOOK CHARACTERS.

As Iwatani continued to develop the idea of a game which involved eating, he added the concept of a maze, and then came the power pellet (or power cookie), a special item that allowed Pac-Man to eat his enemies. Iwatani later revealed that the power-up idea was inspired by Popeye, who often defeated his arch rival Bluto by eating spinach.

Pac-Man's ghosts were also inspired by comic book characters. "Pac-Man is inspired by all the manga and animation that I’d watch as a kid," Iwatani told WIRED in 2010. "The ghosts were inspired by Casper, or Obake no Q-Taro."

5. IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST GAMES TO INTRODUCE CUT-SCENES.

Pac-Man's action is occasionally interspersed with simple cartoonlike interludes, where an enormous Pac-Man chases a terrified ghost across the screen. Iwatani dubbed these "coffee breaks" and imagined them as a means of enticing players to chomp their way to the next scene. Iwatani's programmers initially resisted the idea, arguing that the interludes added little to the game, but Iwatani ultimately won the battle.

6. THE GAME WOULD BE NOTHING WITHOUT ITS ENEMY AI.

Although Iwatani was the creative force behind Pac-Man, bringing the game to life fell to a team of four staff, including programmer Shigeo Funaki and sound designer Toshio Kai. Development of the game took around 18 months—an unusually lengthy production for the era—with the ghosts' behavior posing the greatest challenge.

As Iwatani himself admitted, "There's not much entertainment in a game of eating, so we decided to create enemies to inject a little excitement and tension."

One of the most ingenious aspects of Pac-Man is that each ghost behaves differently—one simply chases the player, two try to attack Pac-Man from the front, while the fourth will chase and then abruptly change course.

"It was tricky because the monster movements are quite complex," Iwatani said. "This is the heart of the game ... The AI in this game impresses me to this day!"

7. THE GAME WASN'T EXPECTED TO BE A HIT.

The first ever Pac-Man machine—then called Puck-Man—was installed in a Tokyo movie theater on May 22, 1980. As Iwatani and his team had hoped, the game was popular with women and the very young, but seasoned gamers—who were more used to the intensity of shooting games—were initially nonplussed.

The uncertainty continued when Pac-Man was shown off at a coin-op trade show later that year. Many of the American arcade operators in attendance thought that another Namco game at the show—a driving game called Rally X—would be the more popular of the two due to its faster pace. Ultimately, Pac-Man was picked up for American distribution by Bally/Midway. Its name was changed from Puck-Man to Pac-Man, and the game's journey to global popularity began.

8. IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ARCADE GAMES OF ALL TIME, YET ITS CREATOR DIDN'T GET RICH FROM IT.

Selling 350,000 arcade machines within 18 months, generating millions in profits and yet more revenue from merchandising, Pac-Man was an international phenomenon. But Iwatani, like many designers and programmers working in Japan at the time—including Space Invaders' creator Tomohiro Nishikado—didn't directly profit from all that success.

"The truth of the matter is, there were no rewards per se for the success of Pac-Man," Nishikado said in 1987. "I was just an employee. There was no change in my salary, no bonus, no official citation of any kind."

9. THE HIGHEST SCORE POSSIBLE IS 3,333,360 POINTS.

Although Pac-Man doesn't have an ending as such, an integer overflow makes the 256th level impossible to clear. This means that if every dot, power pellet, fruit, and enemy is consumed on each of the 255 levels, the maximum possible score is 3,333,360 points. The legendarily dextrous videogame champion Billy Mitchell was the first player to achieve a perfect Pac-Man score.

10. IT'S STILL INSIDIOUSLY ADDICTIVE.

To celebrate Pac-Man's 30th birthday back in 2010, Google placed a playable version of the game on its homepage. According to a report issued by a time management company, the game's brief appearance managed to rob the world of around 4.8 million working hours. Google's first ever playable doodle, the search engine's anniversary version of Pac-Man can still be played today. 

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15 Surprising Benefits of Playing Video Games
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Complex, challenging, and ambitious, video games have come a long way since the simple arcade titles of the 1970s—and evidence is mounting that the benefits of play go well beyond entertainment and improved hand-eye coordination. In honor of Video Games Day (today), here are 15 ways games are programming better people. 

1. THEY'RE PRODUCING BETTER SURGEONS.

While you may think you want your surgeon reading up on the latest medical research instead of playing games, you might want to reconsider: a study of laparoscopic (small incision) specialists found that those who played for more than three hours per week made 32 percent fewer errors during practice procedures compared to their non-gaming counterparts.  

2. THEY MAY HELP PEOPLE OVERCOME DYSLEXIA.

Some research points to attention difficulties as being a key component of dyslexia. One study has shown dyslexics improved their reading comprehension following sessions of games heavy on action. The reason, researchers believe, is that the games have constantly changing environments that require intense focus.

3. THEY COULD IMPROVE YOUR VISION.

“Don’t sit too close to the television” used to be a common parental refrain without a lot of science to back it up. Instead, scientists are discovering games in moderation may actually improve—not strain—your vision. In one study, 10 weeks of play was associated with a greater ability to discern between different shades of grey. Another had participants try to play games using only their “lazy” eye, with the “good” one obscured. Those players showed significant, sometimes normalized improvement in the affected eye. 

4. YOU MIGHT GET A CAREER BOOST.

Because certain genres of games reward and encourage leadership traits—providing for “communities,” securing their safety, etc.—researchers have noted that players can display a correlating motivation in their real-world career goals. Improvising in a game can also translate into being faster on your feet when an office crisis crops up. 

5. PLAYERS CAN BECOME FASCINATED WITH HISTORY.

Many games use actual historical events to drive their stories. Those characters and places can then spark a child’s interest in discovering more about the culture they’re immersed in, according to researchers. Parents who have obtained books, maps, and other resources connected to games have reported their children are more engaged with learning, which can lead to a lifetime appreciation for history. 

6. THEY MAKE KIDS PHYSICAL.

While some games promote a whole-body level of interaction, even those requiring a simple handheld controller can lead to physical activity. Sports games that involve basketball, tennis, or even skateboarding can lead to children practicing those same skills outdoors. 

7. THEY MAY SLOW THE AGING PROCESS.

So-called “brain games” involving problem-solving, memory, and puzzle components have been shown to have a positive benefit on older players. In one study, just 10 hours of play led to increased cognitive functioning in participants 50 and older—improvement that lasted for several years. 

8. THEY HELP EASE PAIN.

It’s common to try to distract ourselves from pain by paying attention to something else or focusing on other body mechanisms, but that’s not the only reason why games are a good post-injury prescription. Playing can actually produce an analgesic (pain-killing) response in our higher cortical systems. The more immersive, the better—which is why pending virtual reality systems may one day be as prevalent in hospitals as hand sanitizer.  

9. YOU'LL MAKE NEW SOCIAL CONNECTIONS.

Gamers are sometimes stigmatized as being too insulated, but the opposite is actually true. The rise of multi-player experiences online has given way to a new form of socializing in which players work together to solve problems. But studies have shown games can also be the catalyst for friends to gather in person: roughly 70 percent of all players play with friends at least some of the time. 

10. THEY MAY IMPROVE BALANCE IN MS SUFFERERS.

Since it is a disorder affecting multiple nerves, multiple sclerosis patients often have problems with their balance—and no medications have been conclusively proven to help. However, one study showed that MS patients who played games requiring physical interaction while standing on a balance board displayed improvement afterward. 

11. YOU'LL MAKE FASTER DECISIONS.

We all know someone who seems to have a faster CPU than the rest of us, able to retrieve information or react in a split second. For some, that ability might be strengthened through gaming. Because new information is constantly being displayed during play, players are forced to adapt quickly. In one study, players who were immersed in fast-paced games were 25 percent faster in reacting to questions about an image they had just seen compared to non-players. 

12. THEY MAY CURB CRAVINGS.

Players preoccupied with indulging in overeating, smoking, or drinking might be best served by reaching for a controller instead. A university study revealed a 24 percent reduction in desire for their vice of choice after playing a puzzle game. 

13. THEY'LL REDUCE STRESS.

While some games are thought to induce stress—especially when you see your character struck down for the umpteenth time—the opposite can be true. A major study that tracked players over six months and measured heart rate found that certain titles reduced the adrenaline response by over 50 percent. 

14. GAMERS MIGHT BE LESS LIKELY TO BULLY.

Though the stance is controversial, some researchers have asserted that action games may reduce a bully’s motivation to—well, bully. One study that had players assume the role of both the hero and villain showed that those controlling the bad guy’s behaviors displayed a greater sense of remorse over their actions. 

15. THEY CAN HELP ADDRESS AUTISM.

Gamers using systems that incorporate the entire body to control onscreen movement have been shown to be more engaged in celebrating victories with their peers, which runs counter to the lack of communication people with autism sometimes present. A study also showed that sharing space with multiple players can also lead to increased social interaction for those with the disorder.

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